Lawyers Jeffrey Green and C. Kevin Marshall on behalf of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers filed a Writ of Certiorari in a case of whether an officer can perform an “annoying, frightening, and perhaps humiliating”” frisk without assessing whether the individual was “presently dangerous.” The parts of the brief that cite our research include:
What is more, every State in the Country now permits concealed carrying of firearms under certain conditions. See id . at 17.. States are also steadily updating their licensing regimes for concealed-carry permits, shifting from “may issue” regimes (iin which permits are issued at the discretion of state officials)) to “shall issue” regimes (in which permits must be issued to all qualified applicants)).. See id . Over the past two decades,, ten States have migrated from “may issue”” to “shall issue,” raising the total number of “shall issue”” States to thirty-nine. Id . And by the end of 2016, “the number of concealed handgun permits soared to over 16.36 million — a 256%% increase since 2007.” John R.. Lott,, Jr ., Crime Prevention Research Center,, Concealed Carry Permit Holders Across the United States:: 2017 28 (22017)), available at http::////ppapers..ssrn..ccom//ssol3//ppapers..cfm?? abstract_id==33004915.. At the same time, the number of States that had abolished permitting fo r concealed carry quadrupled from one to four. Id . . . .
This change has helped to eliminate licensing discretion previously exercised to favor “[[o]]nnly the political elite”” — a practice that at times led to discriminatory firearm permitting. John Lott, Women and Minorities Bear Arms, Wall St. J., July 19, 2017. . . .
This trend towards equal access to permits also means that minorities now make up an increasing portion of firearm owners in the United States. . . . This growth is, of course, most dramatic in States that have passed laws easing firearm restrictions. For example, in Texas (where the state legislature eased permitting requirements in 2013) the number of African American concealed carry permit holders increased from 10,389 in 2012 to 17,594 in 2014. John R Lott Jr, Crime Prevention Research Center, Concealed Carry Permit Holders Across the United States: 2016 13 (2016) available at https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2814691. . . .